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Acute tonsillitis is an infection (which can be viral or bacterial) of the tonsils or tonsils, two small defense organs in the form of pads that are located in the back of the throat, one on each side.

The infection produces inflammation of these lymph nodes and, therefore, causes throat pain, fever and difficulty swallowing food. It most often affects children and adolescents, and can be transmitted through direct contact with saliva or contaminated objects, or indirectly through the air, through coughing and

Although the infection causes discomfort for a period of three to five days, most patients recover completely with or without mediation. Only a small number of cases present serious complications, requiring medical intervention.

Causes of acute tonsillitis

Acute tonsillitis

The most common cause of acute tonsillitis is the infection of viruses such as: adenovirus, flu virus, parainfluenza virus, Epstein-Barr virus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus. It can also be caused by the infection of bacteria , especially in the case of adolescents and adults. The most commons are:

  • Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • Staphylococcus
  • Pneumococcus
  • Haemophilus.

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Risk factor’s

Tonsils are the first defense barrier that the immune system has against

Symptoms of acute tonsillitis

Acute tonsillitis

Due to the wide variety of microorganisms that can cause acute tonsillitis, it is difficult to accurately establish the incubation period from when the person becomes infected until it shows strong symptoms. In general, a patient with acute tonsillitis experiences:

  • Sensitive and dilated glands (lymph nodes) in the neck.
  • Stomach pain, especially in young children.
  • White or yellow patches on the tonsils.
  • Difficulty or pain when .
  • Tonsils red and inflamed.
  • Changes in the tone of the voice.
  • Neck stiffness.
  • Sore throat.
  • General discomfort.
  • Headache.
  • Earache.
  • Halitosis.
  • Fever.

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Diagnosis

The diagnosis of acute tonsillitis can be made with a pharyngeal sample . It is a medical examination that collects secretions from the back of the throat using a sterile, elongated swab. The sample is analyzed in the clinic or in a laboratory to detect streptococcal bacteria. This procedure is painless , although it can cause a little

Complete blood count

Acute tonsillitis

The doctor may order a complete blood count with a small sample of blood. The result of this test allows you to determine if an infection is more likely to be caused by bacteria or a virus. Often, this test is not done to diagnose strep throat. However, if the test is negative, the complete blood count can determine the cause of the tonsillitis.

Treatment of tonsillitis

For proper treatment of tonsillitis it is important to know if it is of bacterial or viral origin. While acute tonsillitis caused by bacteria is treated with antibiotics, viral tonsillitis should be treated with home care.

Antibiotics

Acute tonsillitis

If it is determined that the tonsillitis is caused by a bacterial infection, the doctor will prescribe a series of antibiotics.

Home care

Since viral tonsillitis is not treated with antibiotics, it is important to take into account some home care that can cope with symptoms and promote recovery. Of course, these measures can be applied regardless of the cause of the infection.

Surgery

Acute tonsillitis

Surgery to remove tonsils (tonsillectomy) is a measure taken when these lymph nodes become severely inflamed , compromising breathing and causing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. A tonsillectomy is also performed if the tonsillitis becomes chronic, causing complications that do not respond to

References

Meyer A. Pediatric infectious disease. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: chap 197.

Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group : 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 55 (10): 1279-1282. PMID: 23091044

van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Keber N, Habraken H, Christiaens T. Different antibiotic treatments for group . Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; (4): CD004406. PMID: 23633318

Acute tonsillitis

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