Hypertension is a syndrome of multiple etiology that causes systemic vascular damage. It is characterized by having a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or greater in patients, as well as diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or greater. This condition increases the morbidity and mortality of other cardiovascular diseases , such as:
- Heart failure.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Hypertensive retinopathy.
- Chronic renal failure.
- Cerebrovascular disease
- Peripheral arterial disease.
The picture of arterial hypertension is presented asymptomatically during the first stages , therefore, there is a high percentage of people who are unaware that they suffer from this syndrome and, however, suffer from it.
During sleep hours, blood pressure drops significantly. The nocturnal rest is essential but high figures of arterial pressure when waking up, first thing in the morning, are a worrisome signal
-Dr. Michel Brack-
Classification of arterial hypertension
There are different classifications of arterial hypertension as well as the risk of developing it. In general, arterial hypertension is classified as follows:
- Group A. Patients with figures of high normal blood pressure, without presenting damage to the target organ. These are candidates to require follow-up for a year, during which the patient will be indicated, firstly, to make the necessary modifications in their lifestyle, to ensure that they have a healthy style, and, secondly, a monitoring of the tensional figures throughout said period.
- Group B. Patients who have no damage to the target organ but present one or more cardiovascular risk factors. Most of those affected are in this group. To this group, the doctor will give them a pharmacological treatment.
- Group C. Patients with damage to the target organ. These present tension from normal to high, but with more than 3 risk factors of kidney disease, diabetes or heart failure. Similarly, medical treatment is indicated as well as changes in lifestyle, if necessary.
Who has high blood pressure?
High blood pressure occurs at any age. However, it is very common for people over 65 years of age to suffer from it, especially in the male sex , according to the statistics and studies carried out to date. On the other hand, it should be noted that, in the case of women, high blood pressure occurs at the end of menopause.
- Obesity. The increase in abdominal fat increases the risk of hypertension.
- Resistance to insulin. This is a metabolic disorder that involves the reduction of glucose in the peripheral skeletal muscle. Insulin promotes renal retention of sodium and therefore there is an increase in intravascular volume.
- Excessive alcohol consumption. It causes an increase in renin-angiotensin and cortisol levels. This causes alterations in the cardiovascular system
- Salt intake An excessive amount of sodium is generated. Which causes an increase in blood volume and increases cardiac output.
- Sedentary. The lack of exercise alters the vasodilation of the endothelium (tissue that covers the heart). There is also an increase in cholesterol, triglycerides because they lower high intensity lipoproteins.
- Stress. People exposed to psychogenic stress can develop hypertension, even in the case of healthy young people.
- Low potassium intake This can be a risk factor for developing strokes.
- Smoking Tobacco use raises blood pressure. In addition, nicotine has a vasodilatory effect on metabolites.
- Accelerated pulse
- Blurred vision (see flashes of light).
- Ringing in the ears.
- Difficulty breathing.
- Stains on the eyes.
- Primary. It is presented idiopathically, that is, without having a basic pathology.
- High school. It happens when the blood pressure is raised by other factors, such as:
- Kidney diseases
- Hormonal abnormalities.
- Cardiovascular diseases.
It is said that there is suspicion of hypertension, when the average of 2 consecutive measurements in the arm with the highest value of blood pressure is greater than or equal to 130/85. If so, it is essential that the person goes to a health facility, in order to measure the pressure and confirm or rule out the diagnosis.
In the meantime, it should be known that when the blood pressure is equal to or greater than 180/110, it may be an indication of a possible hypertensive crisis.
With regard to the treatment of arterial hypertension, the drugs prescribed to the patient reduce the risk of suffering cardiovascular disease or, failing that, death. Hence the importance of initiating treatment immediately once the diagnosis is confirmed.
Because arterial hypertension usually has no symptoms, medications must be taken at the same time, since blood pressure varies during the day. In addition, this requires monitoring the results to verify that the treatment is normalizing the pressure.
The patient with arterial hypertension should know that:
- High blood pressure is a lifelong condition and medications only serve to control it.
- It is necessary to take the medications regularly and not suspend them.
- Usually 2 or more drugs are prescribed. These do not act immediately, but after a few weeks.
- The dosage of the medications varies and has nothing to do with the improvement or deterioration of the patient.
- Avoid the consumption of alcoholic drinks.
- Eat at exact hours to control weight.
- Carry out an exercise program on a regular basis.
- Use relaxation techniques to avoid stress.
- Maintain a balanced
Dr. Agustin Lara Esqueda. Technical guide to train the patient with arterial hypertension. Mexico: MSD, 2002.
Dr. Margarita Fernández López. Systematic hypertension. Mexico: Education for health, 2016.
VV.AA. Essential arterial hypertension. , 2016.
JR Banegas. Epidemiology of arterial hypertension in Spain. Current situation and perspectives. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. , 2005.