Hypertension and hypotension are two disorders related to blood pressure in the arteries, so it is necessary to be attentive to their consequences. In order to determine when each of them occurs and to treat them properly, in the following article we present the causes and symptoms of high and low blood pressure.
Causes of hypotension
Low blood pressure can be inherited and is more frequent than high blood pressure, especially in thin, young women. If the mother has suffered it, the daughter is more likely to do so too. As it does not always produce noticeable symptoms, people are not usually treated.
Low blood pressure can cause problems such as hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, failure of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, heart failure, pericarditis , heart rhythm disorders and other cardiovascular diseases, as well as fluid deficiency or lack of salt.
The drugs can also cause hypotension. Some of them are psychotropic (for insomnia, anguish or depression), those that treat cardiac arrhythmias, antihypertensives (for high blood pressure), diuretics, coronary drugs (for angina, for example) and the vasodilators.
Causes of hypertension or high blood pressure
High blood pressure can develop at any time of life, without distinction of sex. It produces, basically, an increase in the pumping of blood to the heart and a contraction of the blood vessels.
It is considered a disease of the cardiovascular system and can lead to heart attacks. The problem is that 95% of cases of high blood pressure do not have obvious organic causes.
A person may suffer high blood pressure as a result of obesity or overweight, lack of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle, excessive consumption of salt, fat or alcohol, stress or smoking.
When the pressure is high permanently, it affects the vital organs, such as the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes. For this reason, it can cause from heart failure to loss of vision, passing through a myocardial infarction or stroke.
Hypertension can be caused by inheritance and there is more predisposition in men, especially after 40 years. Also, overweight and cholesterol are direct causes of this disease.
Symptoms of hypotension
In case of low blood pressure, the person may suffer one, one or more of these symptoms:
- Need to sleep more hours
- Decreased physical fitness
- Problems to concentrate
- Depressive emotional responses
- Sleep disorders
Asthenia may also appear, greater sensitivity to cold (especially in the feet and hands), need many hours to wake up completely in the morning, rapid onset of fatigue and skin pallor (mostly in the face).
The circulatory symptoms of low blood pressure appear when there is a deficit in the blood supply in the brain. This can occur, for example, on hot days or by being under the sun at noon. Fatigue and asthenia are very frequent and may appear after eating, when blood accumulates in the stomach area.
Dizziness is also very common in hypotension. So are headaches, fading, short losses of consciousness, eye blinking and visual disturbances. This occurs as a clear sign that something bad is happening.
Then, the heart can start to beat faster (tachycardia), blood vessels contract (that’s why there is paleness or cold hands and feet), excessive cold sweating and even fainting, because the brain does not receive enough oxygen and does not He has control over the muscles.
Symptoms of hypertension
For its part, high blood pressure also has its symptoms. It is necessary to pay attention to the signals that the body gives us. However, the first signs of hypertension are not palpable by people, because they can be unspecific and develop gradually.
Some common symptoms are:
- Difficulty falling asleep at night
- Slight irritability
- Restless sleep and recurring nightmares
- Waking up several times at dawn
- Hearing problems such as
The intense headaches or dizziness may indicate that we are facing a case of hypertension, especially when they appear after an episode of high stress, nerves or anxiety.
In women over 50, many of the symptoms of high blood pressure are similar to those of menopause: there are fluctuations in mood, hot flashes, headaches and dizziness. Therefore, many are not treated accordingly.
On the other hand, in the case of middle-aged men, they can manifest as problems associated with erectile dysfunction.
In all cases, the chest pain, dyspnea, arrhythmia, tightness in the chest or the sensation of drowning are reason enough to go to the doctor. As stated earlier, high blood pressure leads to heart problems.