The treatment of gastritis consists of the administration of different types of drugs and a series of general recommendations to facilitate the patient’s digestive process (which is usually deficient when you have gastritis), as well as associated pain and discomfort.
The purpose of the different types of drugs that are prescribed is to combat various aspects: inflammation, pain, discomfort, among others that will be explained in more detail in the following.
Gastritis treatment: general measures
As a pharmacological treatment is prescribed , the doctor will recommend that the patient take a series of additional measures to guarantee a quick recovery.
These measures are no more than healthy lifestyle habits that not only apply to the treatment of gastritis, but also to daily life in general.
- Make frequent meals with prudent amounts.
- Avoid drinking alcohol.
- Do not eat foods that are too cold or too hot.
- Avoid fried foods, spicy, acid, too spicy, and so on.
- Do not go to sleep right after eating.
- Reduce the consumption of tobacco or quit
It is about having the willingness to care for the organism and act accordingly. Remember, what should always prevail is health.
Nowadays we have a wide range of medicines with which gastritis can be treated. It should be noted in this regard that, although these drugs may have different mechanisms of action, they do have an effective action in the body. Regarding its classification, it has the following divisions:
- Antacid agents
- Antisecretory agents.
- Protectors of the mucosa.
Within this group are the inhibitors of the proton pump (PPI) and the antihistamines H2.
How do proton pump inhibitors work in our body?
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are actually prodrugs. That is, they are a pharmacological substance that is administered inactivated and after suffering its corresponding metabolism, it is activated and produces its effect.
In this way the PPIs reach the parietal cells (cells of the stomach) and protonate thanks to the acid medium. This causes a sulfonamide that binds to the cysteine residues of the proton pump blocking it.
Therefore, the antisecretory act in the final step of acid production producing an irreversible inhibition of the H * / K-ATPase pump, being a pH-dependent binding being maximum at pH
The pharmacological actions of the PPIs are the following:
- Dose-dependent inhibition of basal or induced acid secretion.
- Decrease in the secretion of pepsinogen and its transformation into pepsin, which is an enzyme secreted in the stomach, necessary for the digestion of proteins.
- Inhibition of the growth of Helicobacter pylori.
Keep in mind that these drugs can produce different side effects such as: nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, which are transient.
In the long term, these drugs favor hypergastrinemia , which is an elevation of the normal levels of gastrin and hyperplasia of cellular populations in the mucosa.
Within this group, the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of gastritis are:
In case the patient is taking another type of medication apart from the PPI, the doctor should be informed , since these drugs, when metabolized by the liver, can easily interact with others producing undesirable reactions.
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And the H2 antihistamines?
These drugs competitively and reversibly block the H2 receptors of parietal cells, the cells of the stomach. Based on this blockade, the pharmacological actions that are triggered are the following:
- Inhibition of basal acid secretion, so they are effective for patients with nocturnal acid secretions.
- Partial inhibition of secretion induced by stimuli, such as that induced by hormones or food.
- Decrease in pepsinogen secretion, without affecting the concentration of pepsin.
- Decrease in the total volume of gastric juice .
However, these drugs have passed into the background since IPB appeared , since the latter have a series of advantages over antihitamins, such as greater selectivity, greater action potency and greater systomatic relief. The most used are:
These drugs also have numerous interactions, so it is advisable to consult the doctor if you are taking any other medication . However, the side effects of these, in particular, are of little frequency and importance.
These are inorganic compounds that are able to react with the acid secreted by the stomach cells, neutralizing it in the gastric lumen. So that:
- They raise the pH of the stomach. For this reason they should not be administered together with antisecretory drugs because they, for the most part, need the acid pH of the stomach to exert their effect.
- They decrease the activity of pepsin.
Antacid agents are short-term drugs that are usually recommended in the treatment of gastroenteritis.
These antacids last about 3 hours with food in the stomach and about 20/60 minutes on an empty stomach. Therefore, antacids can be divided into two categories:
Non-systemic (slow-acting and sustained and without rebound effect) we find:
- Magnesium salts
- Aluminum salts.
- Combination of the previous two.
- Calcium salts
Systemic (fast acting and short lasting and with rebound effect) we highlight:
- Sodium bicarbonate.
- Calcium carbonate.
Antacids are widely used drugs by the general population, since they are easily obtained and achieve a rapid and effective symptomatic effect.
Although these do not affect the production of acid, these drugs can prevent it from affecting the stomach. In this group, we recommend:
- Sucrafate These They are found in the acid medium of the stomach, forming a sticky, viscous paste that adheres to the stomach cells, protecting them. Its combined use with antacids should be avoided, because these reduce the pharmacological effect of sucralfate.
- Bismuth salts. They also form a protective layer on the mucosa, and also decrease the activity of pepsin, and in particular, bismuth ranitidine, inhibits gastric secretion. Apart from all these pharmacological actions, they also have bactericidal activity against H. pylori.
- Analogs of prostaglandins. These participate in the maintenance of the integrity of the mucosa against irritants. For example, misoprostol.
The treatment of gastritis can only be effective if the patient collaborates and follows the doctor’s instructions. This includes: being constant in the hours of medication and meals, and avoid any kind of vices that may negatively affect the body.
In short, the treatment does not pose too great a challenge for the patient who decides to be aware of his pathology in order to improve.