Nutrients are essential components of food, for proper functioning and maintenance of the body . A healthy diet should contain several nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, water, proteins, carbohydrates, fats and fiber.
Water is essential in the diet of the human being, and given that the human body consists of approximately 60% water, and the adult loses more than a liter and a half of water simply by living, it is necessary to replace the lost water with water. daily, consuming at least two liters of water a day; It helps prevent dehydration, eliminate toxins and is necessary for the absorption of some vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.
Vitamins are usually divided as water-soluble and fat-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C and need to be replaced from dietary sources. Fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E and K are stored in the liver and fatty tissue, and perform important functions in human health, such as resistance and bone formation, and energy production among others.
Minerals are classified into macro minerals : calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine and sulfur , which are needed in larger quantities than microminerals: copper, zinc, selenium, manganese, iron, cobalt, fluoride and iodine, and all they are obtained from food sources.
Eating a diet rich in fiber reduces the risk of heart disease, helps lose weight, regulates blood sugar levels and normalizes bowel movements.
Carbohydrates provide glucose to the cells and muscles of the body , to provide fuel for the functioning of organs in daily activity .
It is important to limit the intake of simple carbohydrates, which are digested quickly, and are found in sugary products such as cakes, sweets and sugary sodas, and choose complex carbohydrates, which take longer to digest, but provide more benefits, such as fruits, whole grains -including pasta and rice-and legumes.
Proteins play an important role in cell growth and repair, so they are crucial in periods of growth ; The protein is composed of nine essential amino acids, which can not be produced by the body and must be obtained from food.
Fats protect organs from damage and it is very important for many metabolic processes ; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats should make up most of their consumption in the diet, such as vegetable oils, fish, nuts, nuts and avocados, and saturated and trans fats, are harmful when consumed in excess, so it is necessary to limit the latter.