Rubella is an acute and contagious disease that affects mainly the child population. It is a mild infection of short duration, except in the case of pregnant patients.
Causes and form of infection
The contagion occurs by means of the droplets in the air ( ) when speaking, coughing, sneezing or any other form of expulsion. In this way, the virus travels through the particles and stays in a new organism. In the case of pregnant women, the infection takes place through the placenta, in this way, the fetus is infected. This is what is known as congenital rubella.
Once the virus reaches the bloodstream , it becomes part of the lymphatic circulation. In the lymphatic tissue it reproduces enough to return to the bloodstream and deal with the antibodies that try to destroy it.
Types of rubella and symptoms
There are two types of rubella , the most common is the postnatal (also known as generic) and the second type would be the congenital , which is one in which it is transmitted from mother to child through the placenta. In this regard, it should be noted that several evolutionary stages of the disease are differentiated:
- Incubation period. In generic rubella there is an incubation period of two to three weeks and can be presented as a catarrhal picture.
- Prochromatic period. Rubella usually appears in children. However, adults who suffer from it suffer a more aggressive disease and there are symptoms that indicate the beginning of it (
- Exanthematic period. This stage is what makes it possible to diagnose rubella with exploration. These are symptoms that make it possible to identify the disease. Among them, the presence of fever, rash and (dotted pink palate). Rubella exanthema is a skin rash that is based on the appearance of reddish spots that extend from the head to cover the entire body of the patient.
In cases of rubella it is common for the lymph nodes to increase in size due to the overload of the immune system in the face of increased viral load
Other symptoms may also appear but are not associated with the normal development of the disease; that is, they are typical of serious cases in which some complication occurs due to the patient’s previous situation. These symptoms can be the following:
Rubella in pregnancy
In the case of congenital rubella, the pregnant woman may present the symptoms mentioned. However, there is a large percentage of patients who are totally asymptomatic and who did not know they had rubella until they were screened at controls throughout pregnancy.
The most frequent disorders in newborns are malformations. Glaucoma, deafness and microcephaly may also occur. It is not uncommon for it to be accompanied by heart problems.
It is very important to diagnose it in time since the complications are serious for the health of the fetus . As the pregnancy progresses, the risk of fetal infection decreases. If the disease occurs in the first months of pregnancy, the risk of miscarriage
Pregnant women can not get vaccinated. So if you intend to should be at least three months before becoming pregnant. At all times they should avoid being in contact with sick people if they are not immunized.
Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis is usually made by a physical examination of the patient. Since the symptoms can be confused with other exanthematous diseases (such as measles), we will proceed to the immunological study of specific antibodies against rubella.
In general, cases of rubella warrant a proper rest so that the patient can regain strength. Likewise, it is recommended that the patient remain isolated for a prudential period of time to avoid other people becoming infected.