The human body is made up of different organs that allow us to live and function properly, and each organ has a main task. For example, the lungs are responsible for the process known as breathing. These organs are two soft, spongy, elastic and conical sacs that are covered by a lubricated membrane called the pleura. This membrane is made up of two serous layers:
- Visceral pleura.
- Plerietal Pleura.
Despite their soft consistency, they have a high resistance that protects them against tears and internal pressures. Its size varies according to the movements of inspiration or expiration. And they have a capacity of approximately three and a half liters.
We have two lungs, one left and one right, that occupy a large part of our thoracic cavity. Its location goes from the diaphragm to above the clavicles, enclosed by the ribs and are separated by the mediastinum, which is a space that moves other thoracic organs away.
Near the mediastinum is the pulmonary hilum, which is where the bronchi penetrate. In each lung enters a main which is divided into secondary bronchi, these are still divided into third-order bronchi.
These pass to the intersegmental, subsegmental, oblique, filling, lateral bronchi and end with the intralobular bronchi. This branch of bronchial tubes is what is known as the bronchial tree.
It becomes one third to one sixth of volume higher than the left lung , weighing around 600 grams. In each lobe the tertiary bronchi are supplied by a segment of tissue called: bronchopulmonary segment.
The right lung is composed of three lobes with their respective bronchopulmonary segments:
- Apical segment.
- Subsequent segment.
- Previous segment.
- External segment.
- Internal segment
- Apical segment.
- Internal basal segment.
- Anterior basal segment.
- External basal segment.
- Posterior basal segment.
And these lobes are separated by two fissures: oblique and horizontal.
Unlike the right, the left lung only has two lobes separated by the oblique fissure.
- Apical segment
- Subsequent segment
- Previous segment
- Upper lingual segment
- Lower lingual segment
- Apical segment
- Previous basal segment
- Internal basal segment
- External basal segment
- Posterior basal segment
The color of the lungs changes as the body grows and develops. In the fetus, it appears dark red, which changes to a pink color in a newborn. According to the growth and its use, as well as for all the particles that enter the body, the lungs become grayish targets already in adulthood.
Functions of the lungs
We can classify these functions into two categories:
- Respiratory function: pulmonary ventilation or periodic renewal of air to the body.
- Non-respiratory function: filters the contamination and metabolizes substances such as drugs and medicines.
The breathing consists of three steps. The first is the process of inspiration and expiration of the air (pulmonary ventilation). This is followed by a process of gaseous exchange between the membranes of the alveolus and the blood vessels (external respiration), which converts the deoxygenated blood to oxygenated blood. Finally another gaseous exchange occurs between the already oxygenated blood and the tissue cells (internal respiration).
Diseases that can affect the lungs
There are disorders and infections that can affect our lungs , especially by the viruses that enter our body through respiration and reach the bloodstream attacking the respiratory system. Among these diseases are: influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis and asthma.
Keep in mind that the body can develop cancer in the lungs, which is due to several causes:
- Genetic predisposition
- Deficiency or excess of vitamin A.
You must go to the doctor for a checkup and diagnosis, in case of experiencing symptoms such as:
- Lack of air
- Cough with blood.
- Pain in the thorax.
- Swelling of face and neck.
The treatment will depend on the type of cancer that is suffered , how far it is, size or location of the tumor. But within the common treatments are:
- Surgery to remove the tumor.
Care of the lungs
Given that they are for our health, without which it is impossible to live and that they can have disastrous consequences to our body, we must know how to take care of them, keep them clean and free of polluting agents. Among some activities to perform to have good health in our lungs are:
- No Smoking.
- Work out.
- Less exposure to pollution.
- Ingest food to clean the lungs.