Tialismo is a medical term that refers to an excessive secretion of saliva. Sometimes, this fluid flows outside the oral cavity.
Normally we produce between a liter and a liter and a half of this substance, when the secretion is greater than this amount is pathological. The tialismo is a disease that receives other denominations, the most used name is sialorrea.
The saliva is a transparent and viscous liquid that fulfills important functions within our organism. As a general rule, it helps to chew and swallow or swallow the food and beverages that we consume daily.
On the other hand, it contains certain enzymes (a subtype of highly specialized proteins) that begin to degrade some substances such as carbohydrates. It also has other chemical components that attack the microbes that the food can contain, protecting our body from infections.
Normally saliva is produced in the salivary glands, which may be larger or smaller. The major or major correspond to three pairs of glands: parotid (behind the ears), sublingual (below the tongue) and submandibular (close to the lower jaw).
Symptoms of tialism
Apart from the overproduction of saliva we can point out other alterations such as:
- Presence of nausea and vomiting.
- Formation of cracks in the lips and their desquamation.
- Facial dermatitis It appears as a result of the reflux of saliva against sensitive skin.
- Halitosis or bad breath. The excessive presence of saliva triggers a bad smell in the patient.
- Tiredness in swallowing. The individual must continually swallow the saliva, producing fatigue in the muscles that intervene in the action.
Causes of tialismo
Babies normally produce a higher amount of saliva than adults up to eighteen months. However, from that age, the overproduction of this liquid is considered pathological.
As a general rule, this medical condition is caused by a series of factors that imply a special situation in the requirement of the production of saliva:
- Pregnancy. It appears in the first months of pregnancy but has to disappear by itself at the end of the second trimester.
- Neurological disorders. For example Parkinson’s , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or ALS, cerebrovascular accidents, etc. These diseases can affect the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. They control the production of saliva and, when they suffer an alteration, this action can be modified.
- Formation of baby teeth in young children. An overproduction of saliva is performed to help with the healing of the gums and to calm the possible discomfort.
- Certain medications We can cite some antipsychotics and other drugs to treat mental illnesses such as Alzheimer’s. In this case, the sialorrhea occurs as a side effect of its use.
- Poisoning. As a general rule this symptom appears in poisoning by mercury, copper, insecticides and certain gases. It is also related to the poisoning of other heavy metals.
- Diseases of the digestive system. For example, we include oral infections, alterations in the pancreas or in the liver or gastroesophageal reflux.
Diagnosis of tialismo
Excess saliva can be checked by a physical examination by the corresponding medical team. Also, other tests can be done to find out what the underlying disease of this problem is.
Treatment of tialism
In order to control the flow of saliva , the following guidelines can be followed:
- Use of medications Atropine sulfate is used to reduce reflux of patient saliva. In situations of intoxication, blockage of the parasympathetic nervous system appears. The typical symptoms are constipation, delirium tremens and coma in the most severe cases.
- Surgery. Certain surgical interventions can be carried out with the aim of modifying the affected gland to decrease the production of saliva. The most common is to remove it or block the ducts that carry the saliva to the oral cavity.
- Other recommendations include the position of the head, a proper diet or the use of certain oral devices.