The ocular effusion is a relatively frequent and almost always harmless pathology . It is characterized by a red spot on the eye, which is unsightly and sometimes impressive. However, the usual thing is to heal by itself, without generating any consequences.
Other names with which the ocular effusion is known are subconjunctival hemorrhage or hyposphagma. It is caused by the rupture of some blood vessels or capillaries in the conjunctiva of the eye. The blood is lodged between the sclera conjunctiva and the bulbar.
Normally this ocular effusion occurs without an injury . The person notices the hemorrhage only when he looks in the mirror and sees a bright red spot on the white part of the eye. It almost never causes pain, nor does it affect vision at all.
It is important to note that the ocular conjunctiva is a very thin membrane that covers the eye. A kind of elastic and transparent fabric that covers the sclera, that is, the white part of the eye. Bleeding occurs when the blood vessels in that layer break.
Causes of ocular effusion
There are multiple causes that can give rise to an eye spill . It almost always appears without an apparent reason, except in cases where it is the product of an injury, that is, when the antecedent is a blow to the eye.
The main causes of ocular effusion are the following:
- Malformations or abnormalities in the blood vessels of the eye. These are usually of a congenital or hereditary nature.
- High pressure in the capillaries . For a sneeze, cough or great efforts.
- Rheumatological diseases, anemia or diabetes.
- Elevation of blood pressure.
- Ingestion of medications that alter blood pressure.
- Venous occlusion in the retina.
Only in exceptional cases the ocular effusion is caused by serious causes such as eye cancer. Also, on few occasions, the origin is in circulatory or hematological diseases.
Symptoms and diagnosis
The normal thing is that the ocular effusion does not cause any symptoms , in addition to a red spot, compact and clearly visible in the white part of the eye. Although the blood is visible to the naked eye, it does not go outside, nor does it generate pain. Neither decrease in vision.
Only in a few cases are some indicators that are symptoms of alarm. In those cases you should seek medical assistance as soon as possible. Such indicators are:
- External bleeding An eye discharge only causes internal bleeding.
- Traces of blood in the area of the iris.
- Persistent pain A strong pressure is experienced in the eyeball.
- Sensitivity to light or photophobia.
- Blurred, cloudy or partially or totally blocked vision.
- Protrusion in the iris or pupil, which is seen when looking at the profile eye.
If any of these symptoms occur, we are probably not talking about an eye spill, but a hemorrhage in the cornea. This is a medical emergency that must be attended to immediately. No , nor should pressure be applied to the eye . Neither should sudden movements be made.
Treatment of ocular effusion
The eye spill does not need medical treatment. The usual thing is that it disappears spontaneously, after a few days. In fact, it may take a few weeks before it fades completely, depending on its length. It is advisable not to sleep on the left side of the body and avoid tobacco and alcohol.
It is normal for the spot to have a bright red color at the beginning. As the days go by it takes on a darker and more intense color. Then it begins to fade, little by little, until it disappears completely. It is usual for the eye to have a yellow coloration towards the end of the process.
The most advisable thing is not to touch the eye, nor to rub it, since this can increase the hemorrhage. There is also no place to self-medicate. If what caused the hemorrhage was an injury, it is necessary to visit the doctor to determine the degree of damage.
If the ocular effusion occurs very frequently, it is necessary to go to the doctor. Also monitor . If it is usual to occur in the left eye, this may suggest heart problems or high blood pressure.